VR Storytelling through alienation and reflexivity

This research describes the reflexive dimensions of cinematic VR, using alienation and disembodiment as rhetorical devices. Cinematic VR currently focuses on immersive illusion rather than inducing self-awareness, but VR can also create reflexive contexts for eliciting self and social reflection. Anonymous is an interactive cinematic VR that explores solitude and mortality, specifically people living and dying alone. The work plays on the technical limitations of VR technology as a narrative medium to create a sense of disembodiment and alienation, eliciting embodied reflexivity.

Cinematic VR as a reflexive tool for critical empathy 

This practice-based PhD research aims to develop cinematic VR as a reflexive device for exploring critical empathy. Critical empathy is a concept that emphasizes the limitations and complications of empathy from reflexive perspectives. Many artists and filmmakers have become increasingly interested in using VR as a creative medium for evoking empathy. However, the complexity of the empathic process in reflexive contexts has not been considered sufficiently. Current cinematic VR is focused on creating an immersive illusion to induce a sense of presence or embodied experience rather than eliciting reflection. Although VR technologies have been developing rapidly, there are obvious gaps between physical reality and virtual reality in terms of embodiment and bodily presence. Those gaps do not necessarily need to be erased to create immersive illusions; rather, they can be used effectively as a new method of storytelling and as aesthetic techniques for promoting self and social reflection. The practical exploration of the creation of a new method of immersive storytelling could add substantive insight to understanding cinematic VR, which can be seen as a reflexive device as well as a sociocultural tool for critical empathy.

SOMPLEXITY: the meeting of ‘some’and ‘complexity’

Sojung Bahng, Artenigne


‘썸(some)’, a trendy word in Korea now, is an abbreviation of ‘썸씽 (something)’. It is widely used to describe a complicated or ambiguous state in a relationship. It may imply an anxiety of indeterminacy and a desire for mystery when people create the complex concept of love. Like animals, people are sexually attracted to each other, but, with their mental capabilities, they can transfer this sexual energy to affection or attachment. These fragility and beauty of human beings are what distinguished from animals.

In Korean society, as a whole, people constantly define their values and identity based on other people’s evaluation of them, so personal relationships have become a burden in this era of limitless competition. Therefore, people may categorize their undefinable relationship as ‘썸 (some)’ to justify their uncomfortable situations or feelings although they can naturally experience ‘something’ in everyday life. Can we capture the essence of ‘something’ as complex emotions that only human beings can create? ‘썸(some)’ can be explained as the map of connections that each individual’s memory reconstructs, the complex processes of brain activities or the psychophysiological response patterns in human connections.

<SOMPLEXITY> is an Art & Technology exhibition that represents the various layers of ‘썸(some)’ through the collaboration of art, technology and science. This exhibition presents the different significant moments individuals confront consciously and unconsciously in human relationships. <SOMPLEXITY> explores the features of ‘썸(some)’ in terms of ‘complexity’ – a term for describing a system that has many coaffecting variables that interact in diverse and unpredictable ways. The exhibition examines the chaotic process of forming relationships by combining various sciences and technologies such as neuroscience, new media and physics.


Generative spatial montage with multi-layered screens: A new non-linear cinema and media art

Sojung Bahng, Patrick Hutchings, Doowon Yoo, Chungkon Shi, Graham Wakefield


This study represents practice-based research into new non-linear cinema and media art that generatively selects from author-tagged shots in real-time, and renders them over four screens layered in physical space. The aesthetics of ‘multi-layered screen’ and ‘generative spatial montage’ were specified as a conceptual framework, and the main concept of this media is to create poetic and vertical montage. The four-screen architecture enables audiences to experience diverse images with single and simultaneous vision, thus overlapped images on different screens can be used as a new system of montage film composition with collage effects in depth. With multi-layered screens, montage is created within an overlapping space, without sight distraction, and the audience can appreciate the montage from different angles and positions in a real space to produce different layering effects not possible in traditional 2D cinema. Using a tag based generative editing system helps in the construction of montage with diverse variations and metaphoric meaning. The generative editing system uses a dynamic Bayesian network constructed according to clip and timeline tagging. Audience members can actively contribute to the direction of the montage through a web interface, so the artwork creates different meanings by embracing the role of the audience in every screening. Timeline flow and authorial intents are not damaged due to these criteria, yet unexpected montage may arise from the randomized selections. A dance film ‘Poetry of Separation’ and a documentary film ‘Lost Fragments of Night’ were used to test the system and five expert interviews were conducted to evaluate the new media. The aesthetic concepts of the media find resonance with the newly designed display system.


Digital Love Letter: A handwriting based interface for non-instant digital Messenger

Sojung Bahng, Yoonji Song, Jaedong Kim


The instant messenger has developed as an important communication media platform. However, because of the nature of instant communication, instant messenger services place many limitations on communicating with nuance. We believe that the easy nature of digital communications tends to weaken serious aspects of personal communication such as patience and commitment. On the basis of critical perspectives, we designed the digital messenger ‘Digital Love Letter’ (DLL)’: a mobile messenger in which the expressive process of interaction is more important than the final output. The main concept of DLL is to share the process of communication using a non-instantaneous and non-multitasking interface, so that users can share their time with some similar nuances to face-to-face communication. Both writing and reading messages require concentrated attention. Thus, this paper suggests a new system of digital messenger, that is also a new method of computer-mediated communication (CMC).


Korean Cultural Climate in the 1990s through the Lens of TV Sitcoms 

(Cultural Studies Research, 2011-2013)

Sojung Bahng, Gyuchan Jeon 


In this study, the Korean cultural climate in the 1990s is analyzed through the popular television sitcoms, ‘LA Arirang’, ‘Three Guys and Three Girls’ and ‘Sunpung Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinic’. A situation comedy or a ‘sitcom’ refers to a theater of situations. The genre uses the interweaving of humor into the structure of everyday life to establish its comedic effect and narrative. Since humor itself is an integral part of any culture,  its use in the context of daily life stories can be particularly insightful. Sitcoms can then be used as tools to explore and reveal the nature of society in the times they were made in.

The 1990s was a period of significant social change in Korean society and also signaled the introduction of the sitcom genre to Korean television. During this time, Korea was going through a transitional period with the growth of chaotic globalization and civilianization. The democratization era had started, and neo-liberal policies claiming to advocate globalization began to be implemented. This resulted in the emergence of a new generation who accepted consumer culture with little critical awareness and the collapse of the economy following over-stimulated economic growth.

The sitcoms ‘LA Arirang’, ‘Three Guys and Three Girls’ and ‘Sunpung Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinic’ portrayed the historical characteristics of the 1990s. All the three works showed various aspects of human relationships against the backdrop of the rapid social changes in the 1990s. Conflicts, developed from the coexistence between the old generation and the new generation, were revealed, and an idealized vision of Westernization and Americanization were shown. However, these works imply different cultural climates, which depend on the perspectives of different generations and the historical events leading up to them.

Previous studies into 90s culture and sitcoms have focused on internal elements of specific programs. Sitcoms have often been viewed as being conservative because their propensity towards happy endings can limit their potential for building any conclusion that challenged the status quo. Therefore, there has been a tendency for sitcoms to be evaluated negatively. By studying sitcoms for their potential as a new paradigm for analyzing the times in which they were made, a new appreciation can be gained for their ability to reveal new things about culture and society.

  • Paper Presentation, Symposium for Broadcasting & Telecommunication 2014, Jeju, Korea, April 2014
  • Paper Presentation, Cultural Studies Symposium 2012, Gyeonggi, Korea, August 2012

Korean Thesis PDF